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Audrey Reille is an Executive Coach and Speaker specialized in higher education administration. She holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration from Buckinghamshire New University (UK), a Master’s Degree in International Business from the Ecole Supérieure de Commerce International (France), a Master’s Degree in Business Administration from California State University San Bernardino, and a Doctorate Degree (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership from the University of Southern California (USC). She completed multiple coaching certifications in leadership and strategic intervention. Her background is in community college administration, economic and workforce development, grant management, and professional and organizational development. She coaches administrators on leadership development, career advancement, professional relationships, organization, time optimization, and stress reduction.

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Presentation summary:

Leaders know they should prioritize, “eat their frog first”, say no to unreasonable requests, delegate, and allocate their time optimally. However, something often stops them from implementing best practices. Over-achievers may spend too much time on projects seeking perfection and refusing to delegate because they need control. People who value relationships highly may find it difficult to say no to anyone and take on too much work. New leaders who haven’t developed enough self-confidence may procrastinate on intimidating tasks for fear of failure. The key to better time management is not to discover revolutionary new ways to get organized, but to implement and follow-through on known best practices. Participants will discover what cause them difficulty and how to disrupt habitual thoughts and behaviors. They will also better understand what unconscious needs and beliefs prevent their co-workers from improving their work performance and how to help them get unstuck.

Introduction Higher education leaders have heavy workloads and responsibilities that often cause them to work long days. It is common for leaders to attend conferences, participate in training, and read books and articles on time management but struggle to implement what they learn. Most of them realize the value of prioritizing, setting daily goals, using project management tools, delegating, doing the most challenging tasks early, providing training to their staff to empower them to work more independently, and keeping themselves accountable, but they don’t do it. Their struggle with time management is not caused by lack of knowledge but inability to change their behavior. They may be unaware of the reasons why they continue to repeat old habits instead of implementing new practices, or they may understand their reasons but not know how to change. Typically, they blame themselves for their lack of organization and self-discipline, or they blame other people for the interruptions they create, or both. They look at their situation from a highly pragmatic perspective and often feel discouraged or even stuck.

Unconscious Obstacles Time management is emotionally charged and the first step to making improvements is to deal with emotions. People don’t always know consciously what drives their decisions and behaviors. In a nutshell, individuals are programmed to do what they expect to bring pleasure and avoid what they expect to create pain. This evaluation of pleasure and pain is rarely conscious and is highly subjective, as it is based on the person’s past experiences, beliefs, fears, and needs. Here are some common unconscious obstacles to effective time management.

Seeking perfection. Seeking perfection will cause managers to spend an excessive amount of time on each project. They may attach too much importance to small details that no one else will notice. They might check their work too many times, start doubting themselves, and add complexity that doesn’t bring more value. The unnecessary time spent perfecting one task will be sorely missing for another task, creating unwarranted delays. Seeking perfection can also increase pressure, inflate the level of difficulty perceived, and cause procrastination.

Needing control.

Some people have a strong need to feel in control and are reluctant to delegate because they believe the best way to get something done correctly is to do it themselves. Instead of using their human resources strategically, they take responsibility for more tasks than they can handle. They will create delays and even bottlenecks when they micromanage their staff and insist on reviewing other people’s work. They may also overcomplicate projects by requesting modifications that are their personal preferences but don’t objectively add value to the tasks.

Task avoidance. Managers are likely to keep themselves busy with comfortable tasks and procrastinate on an intimidating one such as writing a report. Avoidance can be caused by various reasons including (1) too much pain perceived in completing the task, (2) lack of intrinsic motivation and interest in the task, (3) lack of external pressure to complete the task, (4) rationalizing why it is acceptable to wait, (5) attaching more importance to other tasks than this one, (6) focusing on what is urgent rather than important, (7) being intimidated by the size of the task instead of tackling it in manageable chunks, (8) not feeling creative or energetic enough and choosing easier tasks instead, or (9) choosing a task that meets the individual’s emotional needs (e.g.meetings or phone calls to meet the need for interaction and connection or answering e-mails for instant gratification and sense of being productive).

Fear of failure.

Lacking confidence in one’s ability to successfully complete a project will create fear and procrastination. The intimidating project will be pushed to the last minute, creating more stress and pressure. This pattern is common for people who (1) worry too much about how they are perceived and tend to focus more on criticism than service to others, (2) are new at their jobs and don’t feel competent enough, informed enough, or prepared enough to complete the tasks successfully, (3) have a critical supervisor who is very difficult to please, (4) exaggerate in their minds what is at stake and create unjustified anxiety, (5) work in an environment that is unsupportive and feels unsafe, or (6) have been treated poorly in the past and still carry the fear of being criticized or punished, even if their current work environment is healthy.

Desire to please. People who have a strong need to please others tend to have difficulty saying no to requests, even when they are not certain they can deliver on their promises. As a result, they will over-commit and find themselves unable to meet deadlines. Their fear of disappointing someone or letting someone down will often become a self-fulfilling prophecy because they lack healthy boundaries. They are also likely to let people take too much of their time, call them too often, ask for too many favors, and assign them projects that should be directed elsewhere. They tend to make unnecessary sacrifices because they want to be liked, and prioritize what other people want over what they themselves need.

Need for connection. Occasionally, managers overestimate how much time they should spend nurturing relationships on campus by engaging in long conversations with co-workers. Leaders with an open-door policy who lack self-discipline may allow people to interrupt their workflow excessively and overstay their welcome. While relationships are of the utmost importance and leaders need to know how to inspire teamwork, loyalty, and collaboration, they should not assume that quantity of conversations is an indication of quality. Many high achievers will lose motivation when they question whether other people are working or socializing. An excessively laid back atmosphere can hurt morale and dedication. When friendships seem to be more important than work, standards are likely to get lower and so will productivity.

Seeking comfort and familiarity.

Not everyone embraces change. In fact, most people are highly resistant to change. Many individuals prefer to keep doing what is familiar, comfortable, and predictable, even if it is not optimal. Breaking old habits require commitment and self-discipline. If someone does not set a clear intention to change and create structure for accountability and follow-through, they will revert back to doing things the way they always have. Improving time management is not difficult but it feels too unfamiliar and uncomfortable to some people.

Being reactive rather than proactive. Some managers describe their work as putting out fires all day. Their lack of structure and organization causes them to spend their workdays reacting to emails, calls, meetings, and crises to resolve. They believe they cannot make time to create processes or systems, or train their staff to do more or work independently. They are busy keeping their heads above water and don’t know how to make time to improve their workflow and effectiveness. Their attachment to the belief that they don’t have any time available prevents them from implementing time management strategies.

Taking pride in being overworked.

When someone takes pride in personal sacrifice and being overworked, they will not improve their time management. Being able to leave the office on time each day would damage their self-image. Their self-worth and identity are tied to how hard they work therefore; finding ways to create free time may be appealing consciously but will be rejected unconsciously. They will sabotage their efforts to achieve work-life balance because they think hard work is more honorable. Their inner conflict will keep them from changing habits.

Feeling not good enough. Similarly, when leaders have a relentless inner voice telling them they are not good enough or are not doing enough, they will continue to work excessively to prove their worth and find self-acceptance. Their inner critic will sabotage efforts to improve their time management because the unconscious goal remains to do more and sacrifice more, not less.

Overcoming Unconscious Obstacles The first step to overcoming these obstacles is to become aware of them. Self-reflection can be facilitated by a coach or done independently through inquiry. Once the person understands the reasons why they have difficulty implementing better time management practices, they can find solutions and commit to changing old habits.

Managers who now understand what need(s) they were unconsciously trying to meet can find new vehicles to meet these needs, making it possible to change the unwanted behaviors. Briefly acknowledging their fears will allow them to think of solutions to find reassurance and make the fears disappear. Identifying long-held beliefs that cause dysfunction will give them an opportunity to change perspective and liberate themselves from old patterns.


Work habits are determined by the unconscious mind until we choose to consciously observe our own decisions and behaviors and choose to make changes. Intentions alone are not effective because obstacles need to be brought to the surface to be overcome. The gap between knowledge and action, meaning knowing what to do and actually doing it, can only be filled by addressing the emotional side of time management. Self-discipline is not sufficient when the person experiences inner-conflict and has mutually exclusive goals. During Thursday’s presentation Audrey Reille will demonstrate how to use this process for yourself and for the people you manage.

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